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Natural Resources
This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.
Country
Natural Resources
Afghanistan: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Albania: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower
Algeria: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
American Samoa: pumice, pumicite
Andorra: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Angola: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Anguilla: salt, fish, lobster
Antarctica: iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Antigua and Barbuda: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Arctic Ocean: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Argentina: fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Armenia: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Aruba: NEGL; white sandy beaches
Ashmore and Cartier Islands: fish
Atlantic Ocean: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Australia: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Austria: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Azerbaijan: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Bahamas, The: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land
Bahrain: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Baker Island: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Bangladesh: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Barbados: petroleum, fish, natural gas
Bassas da India: none
Belarus: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas
Belgium: coal, natural gas
Belize: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Benin: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Bermuda: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Bhutan: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
Bolivia: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Bosnia and Herzegovina: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower
Botswana: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Bouvet Island: none
Brazil: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
British Indian Ocean Territory: coconuts, fish, sugarcane
British Virgin Islands: NEGL
Brunei: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Bulgaria: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Burkina Faso: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Burma: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower
Burundi: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Cambodia: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Cameroon: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Canada: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Cape Verde: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish
Cayman Islands: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Central African Republic: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower
Chad: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Chile: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
China: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Christmas Island: phosphate
Clipperton Island: fish
Cocos (Keeling) Islands: fish
Colombia: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Comoros: NEGL
Congo, Democratic Republic of the: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber
Congo, Republic of the: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower
Cook Islands: NEGL
Coral Sea Islands: NEGL
Costa Rica: hydropower
Cote d'Ivoire: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, hydropower
Croatia: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Cuba: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Cyprus: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Czech Republic: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Denmark: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, stone, gravel and sand
Djibouti: geothermal areas
Dominica: timber, hydropower, arable land
Dominican Republic: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Ecuador: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Egypt: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
El Salvador: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Equatorial Guinea: oil, petroleum, timber, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium
Eritrea: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Estonia: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land
Ethiopia: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Europa Island: NEGL
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas): fish, wildlife
Faroe Islands: fish, whales, hydropower
Fiji: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
Finland: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber, fish
French Guiana: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
French Polynesia: timber, fish, cobalt, hydropower
French Southern and Antarctic Lands: fish, crayfish
Gabon: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower
Gambia, The: fish
Gaza Strip: arable land, natural gas
Georgia: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Germany: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Ghana: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower
Gibraltar: NEGL
Glorioso Islands: guano, coconuts
Greece: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble, hydropower potential
Greenland: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Grenada: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Guadeloupe: cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster tourism
Guam: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan)
Guatemala: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Guernsey: cropland
Guinea: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish
Guinea-Bissau: fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Guyana: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Haiti: bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
Heard Island and McDonald Islands: none
Holy See (Vatican City): none
Honduras: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Hong Kong: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Howland Island: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Hungary: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Iceland: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite
India: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Indian Ocean: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules
Indonesia: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Iran: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Iraq: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Ireland: zinc, lead, natural gas, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver
Israel: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand, oil
Italy: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land
Jamaica: bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Jan Mayen: none
Japan: negligible mineral resources, fish
Jarvis Island: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Jersey: arable land
Johnston Atoll: guano deposits worked until depletion about 1890, terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Jordan: phosphates, potash, shale oil
Juan de Nova Island: guano deposits and other fertilizers
Kazakhstan: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Kenya: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barites, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower
Kingman Reef: terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Kiribati: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Korea, North: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
Korea, South: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential
Kuwait: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
Kyrgyzstan: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Laos: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones
Latvia: minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite, hydropower, arable land
Lebanon: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Lesotho: water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals
Liberia: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold, hydropower
Libya: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Liechtenstein: hydroelectric potential, arable land
Lithuania: peat, arable land
Luxembourg: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Macau: NEGL
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land
Madagascar: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Malawi: limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Malaysia: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Maldives: fish
Mali: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower note:  bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Malta: limestone, salt, arable land
Man, Isle of: none
Marshall Islands: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Martinique: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land
Mauritania: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold
Mauritius: arable land, fish
Mayotte: NEGL
Mexico: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Micronesia, Federated States of: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Midway Islands: wildlife, terrestrial and aquatic
Moldova: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land
Monaco: none
Mongolia: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Montserrat: NEGL
Morocco: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Mozambique: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Namibia: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, hydropower, fish note:  suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Nauru: phosphates
Navassa Island: guano
Nepal: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Netherlands: natural gas, petroleum, arable land
Netherlands Antilles: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)
New Caledonia: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper
New Zealand: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Nicaragua: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Niger: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum
Nigeria: natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land
Niue: fish, arable land
Norfolk Island: fish
Northern Mariana Islands: arable land, fish
Norway: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Oman: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Pacific Ocean: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish
Pakistan: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Palau: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Palmyra Atoll: terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Panama: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
Papua New Guinea: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Paracel Islands: none
Paraguay: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Peru: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower
Philippines: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Pitcairn Islands: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish note:  manganese, iron, copper, gold, silver, and zinc have been discovered offshore
Poland: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, arable land
Portugal: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble, arable land, hydro power
Puerto Rico: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil
Qatar: petroleum, natural gas, fish
Reunion: fish, arable land, hydropower
Romania: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Russia: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber note:  formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Rwanda: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Saint Helena: fish
Saint Kitts and Nevis: arable land
Saint Lucia: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential
Saint Pierre and Miquelon: fish, deepwater ports
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: hydropower, cropland
Samoa: hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
San Marino: building stone
Sao Tome and Principe: fish, hydropower
Saudi Arabia: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Senegal: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Seychelles: fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Sierra Leone: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Singapore: fish, deepwater ports
Slovakia: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Slovenia: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower
Solomon Islands: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel
Somalia: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
South Africa: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands: fish
Southern Ocean: probable large and possible giant oil and gas fields on the continental margin, manganese nodules, possible placer deposits, sand and gravel, fresh water as icebergs, squid, whales, and seals - none exploited; krill, fishes
Spain: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Spratly Islands: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential
Sri Lanka: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower
Sudan: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Suriname: timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore
Svalbard: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Swaziland: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Sweden: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower
Switzerland: hydropower potential, timber, salt
Syria: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower
Tajikistan: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Tanzania: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Thailand: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Togo: phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Tokelau: NEGL
Tonga: fish, fertile soil
Trinidad and Tobago: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Tromelin Island: fish
Tunisia: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Turkey: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower
Turkmenistan: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt
Turks and Caicos Islands: spiny lobster, conch
Tuvalu: fish
Uganda: copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Ukraine: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
United Arab Emirates: petroleum, natural gas
United Kingdom: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land
United States: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber
Uruguay: arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Uzbekistan: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Vanuatu: manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Venezuela: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Vietnam: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
Virgin Islands: sun, sand, sea, surf
Wake Island: none
Wallis and Futuna: NEGL
West Bank: arable land
Western Sahara: phosphates, iron ore
World: the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address
Yemen: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west
Yugoslavia: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, hydropower, arable land
Zambia: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Zimbabwe: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Taiwan: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
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