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Industries
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
Country
Industries
Afghanistan: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper
Albania: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Algeria: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
American Samoa: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
Andorra: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, tobacco, banking
Angola: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Anguilla: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Antigua and Barbuda: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Argentina: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Armenia: metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry manufacturing, software development, brandy
Aruba: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Australia: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Austria: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Azerbaijan: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Bahamas, The: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe
Bahrain: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Bangladesh: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Barbados: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Belarus: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earth movers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Belgium: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Belize: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction
Benin: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction materials, petroleum
Bermuda: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing
Bhutan: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Bolivia: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Bosnia and Herzegovina: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
Botswana: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing
Brazil: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
British Virgin Islands: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center
Brunei: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Bulgaria: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Burkina Faso: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Burma: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Burundi: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Cambodia: garments, tourism, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Cameroon: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber
Canada: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Cape Verde: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Cayman Islands: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture
Central African Republic: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles
Chad: cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Chile: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
China: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Christmas Island: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands: copra products and tourism
Colombia: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Comoros: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks
Congo, Democratic Republic of the: mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement
Congo, Republic of the: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarette making
Cook Islands: fruit processing, tourism, fishing
Costa Rica: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products
Cote d'Ivoire: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
Croatia: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Cuba: sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery
Cyprus: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Czech Republic: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Denmark: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding, windmills
Djibouti: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and mineral-water bottling
Dominica: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Dominican Republic: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco
Ecuador: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber
Egypt: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals
El Salvador: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Equatorial Guinea: petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas
Eritrea: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Estonia: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel
Ethiopia: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas): wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins
Faroe Islands: fishing, fish processing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts
Fiji: tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
Finland: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
France: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
French Guiana: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
French Polynesia: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Gabon: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement; petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold mining; chemicals; ship repair
Gambia, The: processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages; agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing
Gaza Strip: generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Georgia: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electric locomotives, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood products, wine
Germany: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Ghana: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing
Gibraltar: tourism, banking and finance, ship-building and repairing; support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral water, beer, canned fish
Greece: tourism; food and tobacco processing, textiles; chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Greenland: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, furs, small shipyards
Grenada: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Guadeloupe: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism
Guam: US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Guatemala: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Guernsey: tourism, banking
Guinea: bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries
Guinea-Bissau: agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Guyana: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining
Haiti: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Holy See (Vatican City): printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
Honduras: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products
Hong Kong: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Hungary: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Iceland: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power; tourism
India: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Indonesia: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism
Iran: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments
Iraq: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Ireland: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal; software
Israel: high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting
Italy: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Jamaica: tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products
Japan: among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods
Jersey: tourism, banking and finance, dairy
Jordan: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, tourism
Kazakhstan: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Kenya: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism
Kiribati: fishing, handicrafts
Korea, North: military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism
Korea, South: electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing
Kuwait: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, construction materials
Kyrgyzstan: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Laos: tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism
Latvia: buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note - dependent on imports for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products
Lebanon: banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles; mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil refining; metal fabricating
Lesotho: food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts; construction; tourism
Liberia: rubber processing, palm oil processing, diamonds
Libya: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Liechtenstein: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism
Lithuania: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber
Luxembourg: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Macau: clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism, gambling
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco
Madagascar: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Malawi: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Maldives: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining
Mali: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Malta: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair, construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing, tobacco
Man, Isle of: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism
Marshall Islands: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)
Martinique: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism
Mauritania: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum
Mauritius: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, clothing; chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery; tourism
Mayotte: newly created lobster and shrimp industry, construction
Mexico: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Micronesia, Federated States of: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls
Moldova: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Monaco: tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Mongolia: construction materials, mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages, processing of animal products
Montserrat: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Morocco: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
Mozambique: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Namibia: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Nauru: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products
Nepal: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production
Netherlands: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing
Netherlands Antilles: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)
New Caledonia: nickel mining and smelting
New Zealand: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Nicaragua: food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
Niger: uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Nigeria: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Niue: tourism, handicrafts, food processing
Norfolk Island: tourism
Northern Mariana Islands: tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts
Norway: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Oman: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper
Pakistan: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp
Palau: tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), construction, garment making
Panama: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
Papua New Guinea: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Paraguay: sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products
Peru: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Philippines: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Pitcairn Islands: postage stamps, handicrafts
Poland: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Portugal: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Puerto Rico: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products; tourism
Qatar: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement
Reunion: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items, flower oil extraction
Romania: textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Russia: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Rwanda: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Saint Helena: construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing
Saint Kitts and Nevis: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages
Saint Lucia: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing
Saint Pierre and Miquelon: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch
Samoa: food processing, building materials, auto parts
San Marino: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Sao Tome and Principe: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
Saudi Arabia: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics
Senegal: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials
Seychelles: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
Sierra Leone: mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining
Singapore: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology
Slovakia: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Slovenia: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Solomon Islands: fish (tuna), mining, timber
Somalia: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down), wireless communication
South Africa: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs
Spain: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism
Sri Lanka: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco
Sudan: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments
Suriname: bauxite and gold mining, alumina production, lumbering, food processing, fishing
Swaziland: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates
Sweden: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Switzerland: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments
Syria: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining
Taiwan: electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing
Tajikistan: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Tanzania: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Thailand: tourism; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Togo: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Tokelau: small-scale enterprises for copra production, woodworking, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Tonga: tourism, fishing
Trinidad and Tobago: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Tunisia: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages
Turkey: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Turkmenistan: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Turks and Caicos Islands: tourism, offshore financial services
Tuvalu: fishing, tourism, copra
Uganda: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Ukraine: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
United Arab Emirates: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling
United Kingdom: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods
United States: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Uruguay: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Uzbekistan: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Vanuatu: food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Venezuela: petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
Vietnam: food processing, garments, shoes, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper
Virgin Islands: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Wallis and Futuna: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
West Bank: generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale, modern industries in the settlements and industrial centers
Western Sahara: phosphate mining, handicrafts
World: dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental problems
Yemen: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement
Yugoslavia: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Zambia: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer
Zimbabwe: mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
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