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Rulers of Imperial, Warlord, Nationalist, and Communist China

History of China
Imperial Dynasties
Qing Dynasty
Note:
Names are given in pinyin transliteration (which was officially adopted by the People's Republic on 1 Jan 1979, but not by Taiwan), except for Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek, who are best known under those versions. Emperors are listed with their personal name (ming), followed by their temple name (miaohao), posthumous name (shi), and the era name (nianhao) roughly coextensive with the particular reign (note that the overlap is not perfect). Although it is customary in "Western" sources to refer to a Qing ruler by his nianhao (e.g., the Guangxu emperor), Chinese usually refer to a former emperor by his miaohao , perhaps preceded by the name of the polity (e.g., Qing Dezong)

15 May 1636 Great Qing Empire Inaugurated 
Emperors:
07 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722 Xuanye (b. 1654 - d. 1722) miaohao: Shengzu /shi: Ren huangdi nianhao 
18 Feb 1662 - 04 Feb 1723 Kangxi
10 Jul 1706   - 1707 Wei Zhiye (in rebellion) nianhao 
10 Jul 1706   - 1707 Wenxing
1707             - 1708 Zhu Cihuan (styled Ding wang, heading Great Ming [or Shining] Realm, in rebellion)
26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721 Zhu Yigui (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan) nianhao 
26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721 Yonghe
27 Dec 1722 - 08 Oct 1735 Yinzhen (b. 1678 - d. 1735) miaohao: Shizong / shi: Xian huangdi nianhao 
05 Feb 1723 - 11 Feb 1746 Yongzheng
18 Oct 1735  -  09 Feb 1796 Hongli (b. 1711 - d. 1799) miaohao: Gaozong / shi: Chun huangdi nianhao 
12 Feb 1736 -  08 Feb 1796 Qianlong
Dec 1786      -  10 Feb 1788 Lin Shuangwen (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan) nianhao 
Dec 1786      -  10 Feb 1788 Shuntian
09 Feb 1796 -  02 Sep 1820 Yongyan  (b. 1760 - d. 1820) miaohao: Renzong / shi: Rui huangdi nianhao 
09 Feb 1796 -  02 Feb 1821 Jiaqing
Mar 1797      -  1797 Li Shu (in rebellion) nianhao 
Mar 1797      -  1797 Daqing
03 Oct 1820 -  25 Feb 1850 Minning  (b. 1782 - d. 1850) miaohao: Xuanzong / shi: Cheng huangdi nianhao 
03 Feb 1821 - 31 Jan 1851 Daoguang
09 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861 Yizhu  (b. 1831 - d. 1861) miaohao: Wenzong / shi: Xian huangdi nianhao 
01 Feb 1851 - 29 Jan 1862 Xianfeng
11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Zaichun (b. 1856 - d. 1875) miaohao: Muzong / shi: Yi huangdi nianhao 
30 Jan 1862 - 05 Feb 1875 Tongzhi
25 Feb 1875 - 14 Nov 1908 Zaitian  (b. 1872 - d. 1908) miaohao: Dezong / shi: Jing huangdi nianhao 
06 Feb 1875 - 21 Jan 1909 Guangxu
25 Feb 1875 - 04 Mar 1889 Empress Dowager Cixi (f) (b. 1835 - d. 1908) (regent)
02 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912 Puyi (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1967) nianhao
22 Jan 1909 -  12 Feb 1912: Xuantong
02 Dec 1908 - 06 Dec 1911 Zaifeng (regent) (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
06 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912 Empress Dowager Longyu (f) (b. 1868 - d. 1913) (Holder of Imperial Seal)
 01 Jul 1917 -  12 Jul 1917 Puyi  (2nd time) (s.a.)
Premiers
08 May 1911 - 01 Nov 1911  Prince Yiguang (b. 1839 - d. 1917)
02 Nov 1911 - 00 Mar 1912  Yuan Shikai (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
Taiping
11 Jan 1851 - Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Great Peace) inaugurated
25 Oct 1864 - Extinguished by Qing Empire
Heavenly Kings
11 Jan 1851 - 01 Jun 1864  Hong Xiuquan (b. 1813 - d. 1864)
01 Jun 1864 - 25 Oct 1864  Hong Tianguifu (b. 1849 - d. 1864)
Shengping 
09 Oct 1854 - Shengping Tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Ascending Peace)  inaugurated
24 Jul 1858  - Extinguished by Qing Empire
Heavenly Kings 
09 Oct 1854 - 24 Jul 1858  Hu Youlu (to Oct 1855) + Zhu Hongying
Cheng
27 Sep 1855 - Great Cheng Realm inaugurated
21 Aug 1861 - Extinguished by Qing Empire
Kings
27 Sep 1855 - 21 Aug 1861  Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang) + Li Wenmao (to 1858)
Kashghar
1694             - 1720  Occupied by Dörben Oyirad
Jul 1759        - May 1826  Occupied by Qing Empire
1864             - Detached from the Qing Empire
1870             - Polity renamed Jiti Shahar
28 Dec 1877 - Re-incorporated into Qing Empire
Khans (from 6 Dec 1873, Amir Khans)
Aqtalik Dynasty

1720             - 1754  Daniyal Khwaja (2nd time)
1754             - 1757  Yusuf ibn Daniyal
1757             - Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf
1757             - Jul 1759  Burhan ad-Din ibn Ahmad
1864             - Feb 1865  Qutlugh Beg
Feb 1865      - 1866  Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan (1st time)
1866             - Muhammad Amin ibn Jahangir Khan
1866             - 1867  Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan (2nd time)
Ya`qub Dynasty

1867              - 29 May 1877  Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir Muhammad Mirza (b. c.1820 - d. 1877)
29 May 1877 - 28 Dec 1877  Quli Beg ibn Muhammad Ya`qub Beg
Pingnan Guo
1856              - 26 Dec 1872  Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State") is a major Islamic rebellious polity in Yunnan Province
Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin  (Leader of the Community of Muslims) (usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan)
1856              - 26 Dec 1872  Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman (b. ... - d. 1873)
Warlord China

01 Jan 1912  - Republic of China proclaimed
22 Dec 1915 - Empire of China
22 Mar 1916 - Republic of China
Note:
The following provincial military governments proclaimed their independence from the Qing Empire in the name of a Republic of China in gestation at the end of 1911, and combined in a Central Military Government at the end of November.
Military Governors
Hubei
11 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Li Yuanhong (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Hunan
23 Oct 1911 - 31 Oct 1911 Jiao Dafeng  
Oct 1911      - 30 Nov 1911 Tan Yankai (b. 1879 - d. 1930)
Shaanxi
23 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Zhang Fenghui
Jiangxi
24 Oct 1911 - 02 Nov 1911 Ma Yubao
02 Nov 1911 - 12 Nov 1911 Wu Jiezhang
12 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Peng Chengwan
Shanxi
29 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Yan Xishan (b. 1883 - d. 1960) 
Yunnan
30 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Cai E (b. 1882 - d. 1916)
Shanghai (actually called itself Military Government of the Republic of China)
04 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Chen Qimei (b. 1878 - d. 1916)
Zhejiang
04 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Tang Shouqian
Guizhou
05 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Yang Jincheng
Jiangsu
05 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Cheng Dequan (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
Anhui
08 Nov 1911 - 28 Nov 1911 Zhu Jiabao (b. 18... - d. 1923)
28 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Yuyun
<i>Guangxi
09 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Shen Bingkun
Fujian
09 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Daoren
Guangdong
09 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Hu Hanmin (b. 1879 - d. 1936)
Shandong
13 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Baoqi (b. 1867 - d. 1931)
Sichuan
22 Nov 1911 - 27 Nov 1911 Zhang Peijue
27 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Pu Dianjun (Military Governor)  (Central Military Government of the Republic of China)
30 Nov 1911 - 31 Dec 1911 Li Yuanhong (s.a.)
Presidents
01 Jan 1912 - 10 Mar 1912 Sun Yat-sen (provisional) (b. 1866 - d. 1925)
10 Mar 1912 - 22 Dec 1915 Yuan Shikai (provisional to 10 Oct 1913) (1st time) (s.a.) 
                          
Emperor
22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Yuan Shikai (s.a.) nianhao 
01 Jan          - 22 Mar 1916 Hongxian
Note:
This attempt at imperial installation of Yuan Shikai was not formally consummated by an enthronement, and there are questions about its actual significance.
Presidents
22 Mar 1916   -  6 Jun 1916 Yuan Shikai (2nd time) (s.a.)
07 Jun 1916   - 01 Jul 1917 Li Yuanhong (1st time) (s.a.)
01 Jul 1917    - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of Great Qing Empire (see above)                          
12 Jul 1917    - 17 Jul 1917 Li Yuanhong (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Jul 1917    - 10 Oct 1918 Feng Guozhang (b. 1859 - d. 1919)
10 Oct 1918   - 02 Jun 1922 Xu Shichang (b. 1855 - d. 1939)
02 Jun 1922   - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi (acting) (b. 1871 - d. 1923)
11 Jun 1922   - 13 Jun 1923 Li Yuanhong (3rd time)(s.a.)
13 Jun 1923   - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng (acting)(b. 1870 - d. 19...)
09 Sep 1923  - 10 Oct 1923 Gao Lingwei (acting) (b. 1896 - d. bf.1953)
10 Oct 1923   - 02 Nov 1924 Cao Kun  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
02 Nov 1924  - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu (acting) (b. 1880 - d. 1936)
24 Nov 1924  - 20 Apr 1926 Duan Qirui (b. 1865 - d. 1936)(provisional chief executive)
20 Apr 1926   - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide (acting) (b. 1871 - d. 19...)
13 May 1926  - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (acting) (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
22 Jun 1926   - 1 Oct 1926 Du Xigui (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 19...)
01 Oct 1926   - 18 Jun 1927 Gu Weijun (acting) (b. 1887 - d. 1985)
18 Jun 1927   - 2 Jun 1928 Zhang Zuolin (b. 1873 - d. 1928) (Generalissimo of the Military Government of China)
Premiers
13 Mar 1912  - 27 Jun 1912 Tang Shaoyi (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
29 Jun 1912   - 25 Sep 1912 Lu Zhengxiang  (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
25 Sep 1912  - 01 May 1913 Zhao Bingjun
01 May 1913  - 31 Jul 1913 Duan Qirui (acting) (s.a.)
31 Jul 1913    - 12 Feb 1914 Xiong Xiling (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
12 Feb 1914  - 01 May 1914 Sun Baoqi (acting) (s.a.)
Secretaries of State
01 May 1914  - Dec 1915 Xu Shichang (1st time) (s.a.)
Dec 1915       - 22 Mar 1916 Lu Zhengxiang (acting) (s.a.)
22 Mar 1916  - 23 Apr 1916 Xu Shichang (2nd time) (s.a.)
23 Apr 1916  - 29 Jun 1916 Duan Qirui (s.a.)
Premiers
29 Jun 1916  - 23 May 1917 Duan Qirui (1st time) (s.a.)
23 May 1917 - 28 May 1917 Wu Tingfang (acting) (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
28 May 1917 - 02 Jun 1917 Li Jingxi (1st time)
02 Jun 1917  - 12 Jun 1917 Xu Shichang (s.a.)
12 Jun 1917  - 24 Jun 1917 Jiang Zhaozong (acting) (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
24 Jun 1917  - 01 Jul 1917 Li Jingxi (2nd time)
14 Jul 1917   - 30 Nov 1917 Duan Qirui (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Nov 1917 - 23 Mar 1918 Weng Shizhen (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
23 Mar 1918 - 10 Oct 1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time) (s.a.)
10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919 Qian Nengxun (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
13 Jun 1919 - 24 Sep 1919 Gong Xinzhan (acting)
24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Jin Yunpeng(1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1925)(acting to 5 Nov 1919)
14 May 1920 - 09 Aug 1920 Sa Zhenbing (acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1952)
09 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Jin Yunpeng (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
18 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921  Yan Huiqing (1st time) (s.a.)
24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922 Liang Shiyi (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
25 Jan 1922  - 08 Apr 1922 Yan Huiqing  (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
08 Apr 1922  - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi (acting) (s.a.)
11 Jun 1922  - 05 Aug 1922 Yan Huiqing (3rd time) (s.a.)
05 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1922 Wang Chonghui (acting) (b. 1881 - d. 1958)
29 Nov 1922 - 11 Dec 1922 Wang Daxie (b. 1860? - d. 19...)
11 Dec 1922 - 04 Jan 1923 Wang Zhengting (b. 1882 - d. 1961)
04 Jan 1923 - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng (s.a.)
09 Sep 1923 - 12 Jan 1924 Gao Lingwei (acting) (s.a.)
12 Jan 1924 - 14 Sep 1924 Sun Baoqi (s.a.)
14 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1924 Yan Huiqing (4th time) (s.a.)
02 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu (acting) (s.a.)
26 Dec 1925 - 04 Mar 1926 Xu Shiying (b. 1873 - d. 1964)
04 Mar 1926 - 20 Apr 1926 Jia Deyao
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide (acting) (s.a.)
13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (5th time) (s.a.)
22 Jun 1926 - 01 Oct 1926 Du Xigui (acting) (s.a.)
01 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gu Weijun (acting) (s.a.)
18 Jun 1927 - 02 Jun 1928 Pan Fu (b. 1871 - d. 19...)

Ministries (1912-28)
"Independent" military governments in 1913
Military governors
Jiangsu
15 Jul 1913  - 29 Jul 1913 Cheng Dequan
Anhui
17 Jul 1913  - 07 Aug 1913 Bo Wenwei (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
Guangdong
18 Jul 1913  - 03 Aug 1913 Chen Jiongming (b. 1878 - d. 1933)
Hunan
25 Jul 1913  - 13 Aug 1913 Tan Yankai (s.a.)
"Independent" military governments in 1916
Military governorsYunnan
01 Jan 1916  - 08 May 1916 Tang Jiyao (b. 1881 - d. 1927)Guizhou
27 Jan 1916  - 08 May 1916 Liu Xianshi Guangxi
15 Mar 1916 - 08 May 1916 Lu Rongting (b. 1856 - d. 1927)Guangdong
06 Apr 1916  - 08 May 1916 Long Jiguang (b. 1860 - d. 1921)Zhejiang
12 Apr 1916  - 08 May 1916 Lu Gongwang
These came together under an umbrella government:
Chairman of the Military Affairs Council 
08 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916 Tang Jiyao (s.a.)
"Independent" military governments in 1917
Military Governors
Anhui
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Ni Sichong
Shaanxi
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Chen Shufan
Fengtian
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Zhang Zuolin (s.a.)
Shandong
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Zhang Huaizhi (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
Fujian
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Li Houji
Henan
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Zhao Ti (b. 1871 - d. 19...)
Zhejiang
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Yang Shande
Zhili
May 1917      - 22 Jun 1917 Cao Kun (s.a.)
Nationalist China
Note:
The name of the polity is still Republic of China, but it overlaps the preceding polity of that name, has a different flag and government system, and eventually a different capital, Nanjing (Beijing is in fact deprived of the name-part jing, meaning capital, and is renamed Beiping after the demise of the "warlord" regime). On 8 Dec 1949 the capital is moved to Taipei, Taiwan. Coverage of the Republic of China from that point continues under
Taiwan
Generalissimo of the Military Government
10 Sep 1917 - 05 Jul 1918 Sun Yat-sen (s.a.)
05 Jul 1918   - 21 Aug 1918 Governing Committee of the Military Government - (s.a.) 
                     - Tang Shaoyi (s.a.)
                     - Wu Tingfang (s.a.)
                     - Cen Chunxuan (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
                     - Lu Rongting (s.a.)
                     - Tang Jiyao (s.a.)
                     - Lin Baoyi (b. 1862 - d. 19...)
21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cen Chunxuan (s.a.) (Chairman Governing Committee of the Military Government)
24 Oct 1920  - 04 May 1921 Governing Committee of the Military Government
                     - Sun Yat-sen (s.a.)
                     - Tang Shaoyi (s.a.)
                     - Wu Tingfang (s.a.)
                     - Tang Jiyao (s.a.)
Extraordinary President
05 May 1921 - 29 Jun 1922 Sun Yat-sen (s.a.)
Generalissimos of the National Government
02 Mar 1923 - 12 Mar 1925 Sun Yat-sen  (s.a.)
12 Mar 1925 - 01 Jul 1925 Hu Hanmin (acting) (s.a.)
Chairmen of the National Government
01 Jul 1925  - 15 Apr 1926 Wang Jingwei (b. 1883 - d. 1944)
16 Apr 1926 - 29 Mar 1927 Tan Yankai (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government
20 Mar 1927 - 13 Sep 1927 Wang Jingwei (at Wuhan) (s.a.)
17 Sep 1927 - 10 Oct 1928 Tan Yankai (s.a.)
Chairmen of the National Government
10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
15 Dec 1931 - 01 Aug 1943 Lin Sen (acting to 1 Jan 1932) (b. 1867 - d. 1943)
01 Aug 1943 - 20 May 1948 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 10 Oct 1943)
Presidents
20 May 1948 - 21 Jan 1949 Chiang Kai-shek (s.a.)
21 Jan 1949 - 01 Mar 1950 Li Zongren (acting¹) (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers)
10 Oct 1928  - 22 Sep 1930 Tan Yankai (s.a.)
Sep 1930      - 04 Dec 1930 Song Ziwen (1st time) (acting) (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
04 Dec 1930 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st time) (s.a.)
15 Dec 1931 - 28 Dec 1931 Chen Mingshu (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1965)
28 Dec 1931 - 28 Jan 1932 Sun Fo (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
28 Jan 1932  - 07 Dec 1935 Wang Jingwei (s.a.)
07 Dec 1935 - 01 Jan 1938 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time) (s.a.)
01 Jan 1938  - 20 Nov 1939 Kong Xiangxi (b. 1880 - d. 1967)
20 Nov 1939 - 31 May 1945 Chiang Kai-shek (3rd time) (s.a.)
31 May 1945 - 01 Mar 1947 Song Ziwen (2nd time) (s.a.)
01 Mar 1947 - 18 Apr 1947 Chiang Kai-shek (4th time) (s.a.)
18 Apr 1947  - 24 May 1948 Zhang Qun (b. 1889 - d. 1990)
24 May 1948 - 26 Nov 1948 Weng Wenhao (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
26 Nov 1948 - 12 Mar 1949 Sun Fo (2nd time) (s.a.)
12 Mar 1949 - 03 Jun 1949 He Yingqin (b. 1889 - d. 1987)
03 Jun 1949  - 02 Mar 1950 Yan Xishan (s.a.)
"Alternative Government of the Republic of China
Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government (at Nanjing)
18 Apr 1927  - 15 Aug 1927 Chiang Kai-Shek (s.a.)
26 Aug 1927 - 15 Sep 1927 Tan Yankai (s.a.)
Chairman of the Committee of the National Government (at Beiping)
01 Sep 1930 - 31 Oct 1930 Yan Xishan (s.a.)
Chairman of the National Government (at Guangzhou) 
01 Jul 1931   - 01 Jan 1932 Wang Jingwei (s.a.)
Chairman of the People's Government (at Fuzhou) 
21 Nov 1933 - 21 Jan 1934 Li Jishen (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
"Under Japanese Occupation
Acting Chairman of the Provisional National Government (at Beiping)
14 Dec 1937  - 30 Mar 1940 Wang Kemin (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
Acting Chairman of the Reformed National Government (at Nanjing)
28 Mar 1938  - 30 Mar 1940 Liang Hongzhi (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
Chairmen of the National Government (at Nanjing)
30 Mar 1940  - 10 Nov 1944 Wang Jingwei (acting to 1940) (s.a.)
20 Nov 1944 -  Aug 1945 Chen Gongbo (acting) (b. 1892 - d. 1946)
East Turkestan
12 Dec 1933 - 06 Feb 1934 Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (in rebellion)
12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946 East Turkestan Republic (in rebellion)
Presidents
12 Dec 1933 - 06 Feb 1934 Xoca Niyaz Haci (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946 Alikhan Tore (b. 1885 - d. 1976)
"Communist China

 1 Oct 1949 Proclaimation of The People's Republic of China
Note:
Deng Xiaoping (b. 1904 - d. 1997) was de facto leader from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. It is impossible to provide exact dates; he rose to power in the aftermath of Mao's death (9 Sep 1976) and became more and more frail in the 1990s (he last appeared in public 9 Feb 1994)
Chairmen of the Communist Party of China 
08 Jan 1935  - 09 Sep 1976 Mao Zedong (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
07 Oct 1976 - 29 Jun 1981 Hua Guofeng  (b. 1920?)
29 Jun 1981 - 12 Sep 1982 Hu Yaobang (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
General Secretaries
(top party post from 12 Sep 1982)
29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987 Hu Yaobang (s.a.)
16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989 Zhao Ziyang (acting to 2 Nov 1987) (b. 1919)
24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002 Jiang Zemin  (b. 1926)
15 Nov 2002 - Hu Jintao (b. 1942)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of China
01 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Mao Zedong (s.a.)
Chairman of the People's Government of North China
19 Aug 1948 - 01 Oct 1949  Dong Biwu (b. 1886 - d. 1975)
Chairman of the People's Government of the North-East
27 Aug 1949 - 01 Oct 1949  Gao Gang (b. 1895 - d. 1954)
Chairman of the Central People's Government
01 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954 Mao Zedong  (s.a.)
Chairmen
27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959 Mao Zedong   (s.a.)
27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 Liu Shaoqi   (b. 1898 - d. 1969)
31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972  Dong Biwu (s.a.)  + Song Qingling (f) (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jan 1975  Dong Biwu (acting) (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Permanent Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
17 Jan 1975 - 06 Jul 1976  Zhu De (b. 1886 - d. 1976)
06 Jul 1976  - 05 Mar 1978  vacant
05 Mar 1978- 18 Jun 1983 Ye Jianying (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
Presidents
18 Jun 1983- 08 Apr 1988 Li Xiannian (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
08 Apr 1988- 27 Mar 1993 Yang Shangkun (b. 1907 - d. 1998)
27 Mar 1993-  Jiang Zemin (s.a.)
Premiers
01 Oct 1949- 08 Jan 1976 Zhou Enlai (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
04 Feb 1976- 10 Sep 1980 Hua Guofeng  (acting to 7 Apr 1976) (s.a.)
10 Sep 1980- 24 Nov 1987 Zhao Ziyang  (s.a.)
24 Nov 1987- 17 Mar 1998 Li Peng (acting to 9 Apr 1988) (b. 1928)
17 Mar 1998-  Zhu Rongji (b. 1928)
"Administrative Divisions
 
09 Mar 1932 - Great Manchu State
01 Mar 1934 - Great Manchu Empire
Chief Executive 
09 Mar 1932 - 01 Mar 1934 Puyi (nianhao: Datong) (s.a.)
Emperor
01 Mar 1934 - 15 Aug 1945  Puyi (nianhao: Kangde) (s.a.)
Premiers
09 Mar 1932 - 21 May 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
21 May 1935 - 15 Aug 1945 Zhang Jinghui (b. 1873 - d. 19...)
Tibet
Note:
Although the dates are firm in the Tibetan calendar,the correspondence between the Tibetan and the Gregorian calendars is only approximate, as 
are, consequently, the dates given here.
07 Oct 1950  - Occupied by China
23 May 1951 - Annexed by China
Secular Rulers  (title Junwang, usually translated as king).
11 Jan 1740   - 12 Mar 1747  Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams-stobs-rgyas "Mi-dbang Pho-lha" (b. ... - d. 1747)
1747              - 11 Nov 1750  Pho-lha-nas 'Gyur-med-rnam-rgyal "Ta-la'i-ba-dur" (b. ... - d. 1750)
Dalai Lamas
08 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706  Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho (6th Dalai Lama) (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
27 Jun 1706  - 1707 vacant
1707             - 1717 Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-rgya-mtsho (usurping Dalai Lama)
1717             - 1720 sTag-rtse-zhabs-drung (regent)
16 Oct 1720  - 22 Mar 1757 rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama) 
(ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708) (b. 1708 - d.1757)
22 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1757 Council of Ministers
29 Apr 1757  - 28 Aug 1762 De-mo sprul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-bde-legs-rgya-mtsho (regent) (b. ... - d. 1770)
28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804 Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho (8th Dalai Lama) (b.1758 - d. 1804)
1804             - 05 Mar 1808 Kun-bde-gling Ta-tshag-rje-drung-sprul-skuYe-shes-blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-mgon-po    (regent)(b. ... - d. 1810)
05 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815 Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho (9th Dalai Lama) (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
1815             - 28 Mar 1819 De-mo sPrul-sku Blo-bzang-thub-bstan-'jigs-med-rgya-mtsho (regent) (b. ... - d. 1819)
30 Mar 1819 - 06 Feb 1822 mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims (1st time) (regent)  (b. ... - d. 1844)
06 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837 Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho (10th Dalai Lama) (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
30 Sep 1837 - 29 Sep 1841 mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims (2nd time) (regent)(s.a.)
29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856 Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho (11th Dalai Lama)  (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
31 Jan 1856  - 1856 Council of Ministers
1856             - 26 Feb 1858 Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-tshul-khrims-rgyal-mtshan (regent) (b. ... - d.1888)
26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875 Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama) (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
25 Apr 1875  - 1875 Council of Ministers
1875              - 12 Feb 1878 Kun-bde-gling sPrul-sku rTa-tshag-rje-drung-ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan-chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan (regent)
02 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933 Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal 
(13th Dalai Lama) (b. 1876 - d. 1933) (30 Jul 1904  - Dec 1909 and 25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in exile)
17 Dec 1933 - Jan 1934 Council of Ministers
Jan 1934       - 25 Aug 1939 Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku hub-bstan-'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan 
(b. 1911 - d. 1947) (regent [for the Dalai Lama to 16 Jan 1941])
05 Aug 1939 - rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-rgya-mtsho-14th Dalai Lama
 (b. 1935) (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India])
Chairmen of the Cabinet (in exile)
19..                - 19..  Zurkhang Ngawang Gelek
19..                - 19..  Shenkha Gurmey Topgyal
19..                - 19..  Garang Lobsang Rigzin
19..                - 19..  Kunling Woeser Gyaltsen
19..                - 19..  Wangdue Dorji
19..                - May 1990 Juchen Thupten Namgyal
May 1990      - Aug 1991 Kelsang Yeshi
Aug 1991      - Feb 1993 Gyalo Thondup
Feb 1993      - 04 Jun 1996 Tenzin Namgyal Tethong
04 Jun 1996  - 05 Sep 2001 Sonam Topgyal (b. 1934)
05 Sep 2001 - Samdhong Rinpoche (b. 1939)
Hong Kong
26 Jan 1841  - British occupation of Hong Kong Island
29 Aug 1842 - China cedes Hong Kong Island to Britain
26 Jun 1843  - British crown colony
1860             - Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island ceded by China
01 Jul 1898   - New Territories leased from China for 99 years
25 Dec 1941 - 16 Aug 1945 Japanese occupation
01 Jul 1997   - Return of the whole colony to China as a special administrative region 
Administrators
26 Jan 1841 - 12 Aug 1841 Charles Elliot (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
22 Jun 1841 - 26 Jun 1843 Alexander Robert Johnston (acting for Elliot and for Pottinger) (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
12 Aug 1841 - 26 Jun 1843 Sir Henry Eldred Pottinger (b. 1789 - d. 1856)
Governors
26 Jun 1843  - 08 May 1844 Sir Henry Eldred Pottinger (s.a.)
08 May 1844 - 18 Mar 1848 Sir John Francis Davis (b. 1795 - d. 1890)
21 Mar 1848 - 12 Apr 1854 Sir Samuel George Bonham (b. 1803 - d. 1863)
13 Apr 1854   - 05 May 1859 Sir John Bowring (b. 1792 - d. 1872)
09 Sep 1859  - 15 Mar 1865 Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
15 Mar 1865  - 11 Mar 1866 William T. Mercer (acting)
11 Mar 1866  - 16 Apr 1872 Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell (b. 1814 - d. 1881)
16 Apr 1872   - 01 Mar 1877 Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
22 Apr 1877   - 07 Mar 1882 Sir John Pope Hennessy (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
Mar 1882       - 30 Mar 1883 Sir William Henry Marsh (1st time) (acting) (b. 1827 - d. 1906)
30 Mar 1883  - Dec 1885 Sir George Ferguson Bowen (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
Dec 1885       - May 1887 Sir William Henry Marsh (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
May 1887      -  06 Oct 1887 William Gordon Cameron (acting) (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
06 Oct 1887  -  May 1891 Sir William Des Voeux (b. 1834 - d. 1909)
May 1891      -  10 Dec 1891 Digby Barker (acting) (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
10 Dec 1891 -  Feb 1898 Sir William Robinson (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
Feb 1898      -  25 Nov 1898 Wilsone Black (acting) (b. 1837 - d. 1909)
25 Nov 1898 -  Jul 1903 Sir Henry Arthur Blake (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
Nov 1903      -  29 Jul 1904 Francis Henry May(1st time)(acting) (b. 1860 - d. 1922)
29 Jul 1904   -  Apr 1907 Sir Matthew Nathan (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
29 Jul 1907   -  Mar 1912 Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
24 Jul 1912   -  Feb 1919 Sir Francis Henry May (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Sep 1919 -  Oct 1925 Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
01 Nov 1925 -  Feb 1930 Sir Cecil Clementi (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
09 May 1930 - May 1935 Sir William Peel (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
12 Dec 1935 - Apr 1937 Sir Andrew Caldecott (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
28 Oct 1937  - May 1940 Sir Geoffry Alexander Stafford Northcote (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
May 1940      - 10 Sep 1941 Edward Felix Norton (acting) (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
10 Sep 1941 - May 1947 Sir Mark Aitchison Young (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
25 Dec 1941 - Feb 1942 Takashi Sakai + Niimi (b. 1887 - d. 1946)
20 Feb 1942 - Feb 1944 Rensuke Isogai (b. 1883 - d. 1967)
Feb 1944      - Aug 1945 Hisaichi Tanaka (b. ... - d. 1946?)
25 Jul 1947   - Dec 1957 Sir Alexander William Grantham (b. 1899 - d. 1978)
23 Jan 1958  - Mar 1964 Robert Brown Black
(from 1962,   - Sir Robert Brown Black) (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
14 Apr 1964  - Oct 1971 Sir David Trench (b. 1915 - d. 1988)
19 Nov 1971 - 20 May 1982 Sir Murray MacLehose (b. 1917 - d. 2000)
20 May 1982 - 04 Dec 1986 Sir Edward Youde (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
04 Dec 1986 - 09 Apr 1987 Sir David Akers-Jones (acting) (b. 1927)
09 Apr 1987  - 09 Jul 1992 Sir David Wilson (b. 1935)
09 Jul 1992   - 30 Jun 1997 Chris Patten (b. 1944)
Chief Executive
01 Jul 1997  -  Tung Chee-Hwa (b. 1937)
Macau
       1553       - First Portuguese settlement at Macau
       1851       - Portuguese occupy Taipa Island
       1864       - Portuguese occupy Coloane Island
       1887       - China recognizes Portuguese rule (renounced 1928)
       1951       - Status changed from colony to overseas province
20 Dec 1999  - Return to China as a special administrative region
Governors
09 Aug 1698 -  1700 Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (1st time)
05 Aug 1700 -  1702 Diogo de Melo Sampaio
22 Jul 1702   -  1703 Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (2nd time)
15 Aug 1703 -  1706 José da Gama Machado
05 Aug 1706 -  1710 Diogo do Pinho Teixeira
28 Jul 1710   -  1711 Francisco de Melo e Castro
11 Jun 1711  -  1714 António de Sequeira de Noronha
18 Jul 1714   -  1718 Francisco de Alarcão de Souto-Maior
30 May 1718 -  1719 António de Albuquerque Coelho
09 Sep 1719 -  1722 António da Silva Telo e Meneses
19 Aug 1722 -  1724 Cristóvão de Severim Manuel
06 Sep 1724 -  1727 António Carneiro de Alcáçova
11 Aug 1727 -  1732 António Moniz Barreto
18 Aug 1732 -  1735 António do Amaral Meneses
15 Jan 1735  -  1735 João do Casal
04 Aug 1735 -  1738 Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (1st time)
25 Aug 1738 -  1743 Manuel Pereira Coutinho
25 Aug 1743 -  1747 Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (2nd time)
30 Aug 1747 -  1749 António José Teles de Meneses
02 Aug 1749 -  1752 João Manuel de Melo
29 Jul 1752   -  1755 Rodrigo de Castro (1st time)
14 Jul 1755   -  1758 Francisco António Pereira Coutinho
01 Jul 1758   -  1761 Diogo Pereira
04 Jul 1761   -  1764 António de Mendonça Corte-Real
14 Jul 1764   -  1767 José Plácido de Matos Saraiva
19 Aug 1767 -  1770 Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha (1st time)
29 Jul 1770   -  1771 Rodrigo de Castro (2nd time)
26 Jul 1771   -  1777 Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha (2nd time)
27 Jan 1777  -  1778 Alexandre da Silva Pedrosa Guimarães
01 Aug 1778 -  1780 João Vicente da Silveira e Meneses
05 Jan 1780  -  1781 António José da Costa
28 Aug 1781 -  1783 Francisco de Castro
18 Aug 1783 -  1788 Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria (1st time)
21 Jul 1788   -  1789 Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Corte-Real
18 Jul 1789   -  1790 Lázaro da Silva Ferreira
29 Jul 1790   -  1793 Vasco Luís Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
27 Jul 1793   -  1797 José Manuel Pinto (1st time)
08 Aug 1797 -  1800 Cristóvão Pereira de Castro
08 Aug 1800 -  1803 José Manuel Pinto (2nd time)
08 Aug 1803 -  1806 Caetano de Sousa Pereira
08 Aug 1806 -  1808 Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria (2nd time)
26 Dec 1808 -  1810 Lucas José de Alvarenga (1st time)
19 Jul 1810   -  1814 Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos Faria (3rd time)
19 Jul 1814   -  1817 Lucas José de Alvarenga (2nd time)
19 Jul 1817   -  1822 José Onório de Castro e Albuquerque
19 Aug 1822 -  1823 Paulino da Silva Barbosa
23 Sep 1823 -  1825 Government Council
28 Jul 1825   -  1827 Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha
15 Nov 1827 -  1830 Government Council
07 Jul 1830   -  1833 João Cabral de Estefique
03 Jul 1833   -  1837 Bernardo José de Sousa Soares de Andrea
22 Feb 1837 -  1843 Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto
03 Oct 1843  -  1846 José Gregório Pegado
21 Apr 1846  -  22 Aug 1849 João Maria Ferreira do Amaral (b. ... - d. 1849)
22 Aug 1849 -  1850 Government Council
30 May 1850 -  1850 Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha
07 Jul 1850   -  1851 Government Council
03 Feb 1851 -  1851 Francisco António Gonçalves Cardoso
19 Nov 1851 -  1863 Isidoro Francisco Guimarães
22 Jun 1863  - 1866 José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral
26 Oct 1866  - 1868 José Maria da Ponte e Horta
03 Aug 1868 - 1872 António Sérgio de Sousa
23 Mar 1872 - 1874 Januário Correia de Almeida,visconde de São Januário(b. 1829 - d. 1901)
07 Dec 1874 - 1876 José Maria Lôbo de Ávila (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
31 Dec 1876 - 1879 Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
28 Nov 1879 - 1883 Joaquim José da Graça
23 Apr 1883 - 1886 Tomás de Sousa Rósa (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
07 Aug 1886- 1888 Firmino José da Costa (b. 1843 - d. 1893)
05 Feb 1889- 1890 Francisco Teixeira da Silva (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
16 Oct 1890 - 1894 Custódio Miguel de Borja (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
24 Mar 1894- 1897 José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa(1st time) (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
12 May 1897- 1900 Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
12 Aug 1900- 1902 José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Dec 1902- 10 Dec 1903 Arnaldo Novais Guedes Rebelo
05 Apr 1904 - 1907 Martinho Pinto de Quierós Montenegro (b. 1864 - d. 1919)
06 Apr 1907  - 1908 Pedro de Azevedo Coutinho (b. c.1863 - d. 19...)
18 Aug 1908 - 1909 José Augusto Alves Roçadas (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
22 Sep 1909 - 1910 Eduardo Augusto Marquês (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
17 Dec 1910 - 1912 Álvaro de Melo Machado (b. 1883 - d. 19...)
14 Jul 1912   - 1914 Aníbal Augusto Sanches de Miranda (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
10 Jun 1914  - 1916 José Carlos da Maia (b. 1878 - d. 1921)
05 Sep 1916 - 1917 Manuel Ferreira da Rocha (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
22 Jun 1917  - 21 Dec 1917 Fernando Augusto Vieira de Matos
12 Oct 1918  - 1919 Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa (1st time)(b. 1880 - d. 1940)
23 Aug 1919 - 1922 Henrique Monteiro Correia da Silva (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
1922             - 1923 Luis António de Magalhães Correia (b. 1873 - d. 19...)
05 Jan 1923 - 1924 Rodrigo José Rodrigues (b. 1879 - d. 19...)
1924             - 1925 Joaquim Augusto dos Santos
18 Oct 1925  - 1926 Manuel Firmino de Almeida Maia Magalhães (b. 1881 - d. 1932)
08 Dec 1926 - 1929 Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa (2nd time) (s.a.)
1929             - 1931 João Pereira de Magalhães (1st time)
30 Mar 1931 - 1931 Joaquim Anselmo da Mata e Oliveira (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
1931             - 1932 João Pereira de Magalhães (2nd time)
21 Jun 1932  - 1935 António José Bernardes de Miranda
1935             - 1936 João Pereira Barbosa
1936             - 1937 António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva Júnior
11 Apr 1937  - 10 Jul 1940 Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa (3rd time) (s.a.)
10 Jul 1940   - 1940 José Rodrigues Moutinho (acting)
29 Oct 1940  - 1946 Gabriel Maurício Teixeira (b. 1897 - d. 19...)
01 Sep 1947 - 1951 Albano Rodrigues de Oliveira
23 Nov 1951 - 1957 Joaquim Marquês Esparteiro
08 Mar 1957 - 1958 Pedro Correia Barros
1958             - 1959 Manuel Peixoto Nunes
18 Sep 1959 - 1962 aime Silvério Marquês
17 Apr 1962  - 1966 António Adriano Faria Lopes dos Santos (b. 1917?)
25 Nov 1966 - 1974 José Manuel de Sousa e Faria Nobre de Carvalho
19 Nov 1974 - 01 Feb 1979 José Garcia Leandro (b. 1940?)
28 Nov 1979 - 1981 Melo Egídio
16 Jun 1981  - 1986 Vasco Almeida e Costa
15 May 1986 - 1987 Joaquim Pinto Machado
09 Jul 1987   - 28 Sep 1990 Carlos Melancia
28 Sep 1990 - 23 Apr 1991 Francisco Murteira Nabo (interim)
23 Apr 1991  - 19 Dec 1999 Vasco Rocha Vieira (b. 1939)
Chief Executive
20 Dec 1999 - Edmund Ho (b. 1955)
Kiaochow
14 Nov 1897 - German occupation
06 Mar 1898 - Leased for 99 years (canceled by China 23 Aug 1914)
07 Nov 1914 - Taken by Japan
10 Dec 1922 - Returned to China
Governors
07 Mar 1898  - 19 Feb 1899 Kurt Rosendahl
19 Feb 1899  - 27 Jan 1901 Otto Ferdinand Paul Jäschke (b. 1851 - d. 1901)
27 Jan 1901  - 08 Jun 1901 Max Rollmann (acting)
08 Jun 1901  - 19 Aug 1911 Oskar Truppel (b. 1854 - d. 1931)
19 Aug 1911 - 07 Nov 1914 Alfred Meyer-Waldeck (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
07 Nov 1914 - 1919 Mitsuomi Kamio (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
1919             - 1922 Mitsue Yuhi (b. 1860 - d. 1940)
Kwangchowan
       1898      - Leased by France
       1943      - Occupied by Japan
Sep 1945        Returned to China
Administrators
       1898      - 1900 Charles Louis Théobald Courrejolles
       1900      - 1902 Gustave Alby (1st time)
       1902      - 1903 Théophile Henri Bergès
       1903      - 1906 Gustave Alby (2nd time)
       1906      - 1908 Jean Edme Fernand Gautret
       1908      - 1910 Henri Victor Sestier
       1910      - 1911 Paul Edgard Dufrénil
       1911      - 1912 Jean Ernest Moulié
       1912      - Pierre Stéphane Salabelle
       1912      - 1915 Henri Jean Auguste Caillard
       1915      - 1919 Marius Albert Garnier
       1919      - 1922 Jean-Félix Krautheimer (1st time)
       1922      - Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard de la Brosse (1st time)
       1922      - 1923 Jean-Félix Krautheimer (2nd time)
       1923      - 1925 Paul Michel Achille Quesnel
       1925      - 1927 Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard de la Brosse (2nd time)
       1927      - 1929 Louis-Félix-Marie-Édouard Rivet (b. 1869 - d. 19...)
       1929      - 1932 Achille Silvestre
       1932      - 1933 Pierre Charles Edmond Jabouille
       1933      - 1934 Paul Delamarre
       1934      - 1936 Maurice Émile Henri de Tastes
       1936      - 1937 Camille Fernand Chapoulart
       1937      - 1942 Jacques Henri Paul Le Prevôt
       1942      - Louis Frédéric Claire Guillaume Marty
       1942      - 1943 Pierre Marie Jean Domec
Kwantung 
05 Sep 1905 - Leased by Japan
Sep 1945      - Returned to China
Governors-General
18 Oct 1905  - 26 Apr 1912 Yoshimasa Oshima (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
26 Apr 1912  - 15 Sep 1914 Yasumasa Fukushima (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
15 Sep 1914 - 31 Jul 1917 Satoru Nakamura (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
31 Jul 1917   - 11 Apr 1919 Yujiro Nakamura (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
12 Apr 1919  - 24 May 1920 Gonsuke Hayashi (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
24 May 1920 - 08 Sep 1922 Isaburo Yamagata (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
08 Sep 1922 - 19 Sep 1923 Hikokichi Ijuin (b. 1864 - d. 1924)
26 Sep 1923 - 17 Dec 1927 Hideo Kodama (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
17 Dec 1927 - 07 Aug 1929 Kenjiro Kinoshita (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
07 Aug 1929 - 16 Jan 1931 Masahiro Ota (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
16 Jan 1931  - 11 Jan 1932 Seiji Tsukamoto (b. ...  - d. 1945)
11 Jan 1932  - 08 Aug 1932 Mannosuke Yamaoka (b. 1876 - d. 1968)
08 Aug 1932 - 27 Jul 1933 Nobuyoshi Muto (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
28 Jul 1933   - 10 Dec 1934 Takashi Hishikari (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
10 Dec 1934 - 06 Mar 1936 Jiro Minami (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
06 Mar 1936 - 07 Sep 1939 Kenkichi Ueda  (b. 1875 - d. 1982)
07 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944 Yoshijiro Umezu  (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
18 Jul 1944   - 1945 Otozo Yamada (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
Weihaiwei
1898              - Leased by Britain
01 Oct 1930  - Returned to China
Commissioners
10 Aug 1899 - 10 Dec 1901 Arthur Robert Ford Dorward (from 1900, Sir Arthur Robert Ford Dorward) (b. 1848 - d. 1934)
May 1902      - 1921 James Haldane Stewart Lockhart (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
1921             - 1923 Arthur Powlett Blunt (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
1923             - 1927 Walter Russell Brown (b. 1879 - d. 1966)
1927             - 30 Sep 1930 Reginald Fleming Johnston (b. 1874 - d. 1938)
The ambiguity of the Constitutional situation leaves it unclear whether this was a vacancy or a substitution for Chiang. The title "chairman" for the heads of state in 1954-75 represents the same Chinese term ( zhuxi ) that is commonly translated "president" for the heads of state after 1983.
Vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee during the vacancy: 
Wu De, 
Song Qingling (f) (b. 1893 - d. 1981), 
Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), 
Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d. 1989), 
Seypidin (b. 1916), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), 
Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d. 1983), 
Li Jingquan, Ulanhu (b. 1904 - d. 1988), 
Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d. 1978), 
Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), 
Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), 
Zhang Dingcheng, 
Cai Chang (f), 
Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910), 
Zhou Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), 
Xu Deheng, 
Hu Juewen, 
Li Suwen (f), 
Yao Lianwei, and from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f) (b. 1904 - d. 1992).
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