Drugs: Uses and Side Effects

A side effect is usually regarded as an undesirable secondary effect which occurs in addition to the desired therapeutic effect of a drug or medication. Side effects may vary for each individual depending on the person's disease state, age, weight, gender, ethnicity and general health.

Side effects can occur when commencing, decreasing/increasing dosages, or ending a drug or medication regimen. Side effects may also lead to non-compliance with prescribed treatment. When side effects of a drug or medication are severe, the dosage may be adjusted or a second medication may be prescribed. Lifestyle or dietary changes may also help to minimize side effects.
All kinds of information on drugs are available online. The following Web sites are useful:
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)A-Z index of drugs and their side effects.
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)Drugs and medications
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)FDA: Food and Drug Administration of USA
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)Find drugs by disease or condition
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)Lists of prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and herbals & supplements
ball1.gif (1653 bytes)Medical encyclopedia
Top 40 Drugs

Please click on any letter below to search for the respective drug name:
Name of Drug Type of Drug Uses Side Effects Risks
Adderall
(amphetamine)
central nervous system stimulant Adderall is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you take Adderall before any MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, or if you have hardened arteries, heart disease, high blood pressure, thyroid, glaucoma, severe anxiety or agitation, or a history of drug or alcohol addiction.
Ambien
(zolpidem)
sedative or hypnotic. Ambien is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Ambien can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to zolpidem. Use caution if you are sensitive to lactose.
Amitriptyline
(Vanatrip, Elavil, Endep)
tricyclic antidepressant Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression. You may have thoughts about suicide when you first start taking an antidepressant, especially if you are younger than 24 years old. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amitriptyline, or if you have recently had a heart attack. Do not use amitriptyline if you have taken cisapride (Propulsid) or used an MAO inhibitor.
Amoxicillin
(Amoxil, Amoxil Pediatric Drops, Trimox)
antibiotic Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat many different types of infections such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Amoxicillin can make birth control pills less effective, which may result in pregnancy. Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amoxicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen), carbenicillin (Geocillin), dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen), oxacillin (Bactocill), penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids), and others.
Atenolol
(Tenormin)
beta-blocker Atenolol is used to treat angina (chest pain), hypertension (high blood pressure), and heart attack. Atenolol can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol, which could increase drowsiness and dizziness while you are taking atenolol.
Ativan
(lorazepam)
benzodiazepine Ativan is used to treat anxiety disorders. This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not use Ativan if you are pregnant. This medication can increase the effects of alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking Ativan. Do not use Ativan if you are allergic to lorazepam or to other benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clorazepate (Tranxene), diazepam (Valium), or oxazepam (Serax).
Cephalexin
(Keflex, Panixine, Biocef, Zartan)
cephalosporin antibiotic Cephalexin is used to treat infections, including infections of upper respiratory system, ear, skin, and urinary tract. The oral suspension (liquid) form of cephalexin may contain sugar. This may affect you if you have diabetes. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to cephalexin, or to similar antibiotics, such as Ceclor, Ceftin, Cefzil, Duricef, Fortaz, Omnicef, Spectracef, Suprax, and others.
Clonazepam
(Klonopin, Klonopin Wafer)
benzodiazepine Klonopin is used to treat seizure disorders or panic disorder. Clonazepam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Clonazepam may cause harm to an unborn baby, and may cause breathing or feeding problems in a newborn. Do not use Klonopin if you have severe liver disease, of if you are allergic to clonazepam or to other benzodiazepines
Clonidine
(Catapres, Catapres-TTS-1, Catapres-TTS-2, Catapres-TTS-3, Duraclon)
blood pressure lowering medication Clonidine is used to treat hypertension, to relieve alcohol withdrawal, to treat Tourette's Syndrome, to reduce menopausal flushing, to treat postherpetic neuralgia, to treat ulcerative colitis, and to diagnose pheochromocytoma. Clonidine can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of clonidine. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert.
Cymbalta
(duloxetine)
antidepressant (selective serotonin, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) Cymbalta is used to treat major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, a chronic pain disorder called fibromyalgia, and to treat pain caused by nerve damage in people with diabetes. Cymbalta can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. You may have thoughts about suicide when you first start taking an antidepressant, especially if you are younger than 24 years old. Do not take Cymbalta together with thioridazine (Mellaril), or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam), or tranylcypromine (Parnate). Serious and sometimes fatal reactions can occur when these medicines are taken with Cymbalta.
Diazepam
(Valium)
benzodiazepine Diazepam is used for the management of anxiety disorders, to relieve agitation, shakiness, and hallucinations during alcohol withdrawal, and to treat seizures and insomnia. This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not use diazepam if you are pregnant. You should not use this medication if you are allergic to diazepam, or if you have myasthenia gravis, severe liver disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, a severe breathing problem, or sleep apnea.
Flexeril
(cyclobenzaprine, Amrix, Fexmid)
muscle relaxant It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) that are sent to your brain. Flexeril is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury. Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you take Flexeril before the MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body. Do not use Flexeril if you have recently had a heart attack, or if you have:
* a heart rhythm disorder;
* congestive heart failure;
* heart block; or
* an overactive thyroid.
Gabapentin
(Gabarone, Neurontin)
an anticonvulsant
(anti-epileptic medication)
Gabapentin is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat seizures caused by epilepsy in adults and children who are at least 12 years old. Gabapentin is also used to treat nerve pain caused by herpes virus or shingles (herpes zoster). mood or behavior changes, depression, anxiety, or if you feel agitated, hostile, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself. You may have thoughts about suicide while taking gabapentin. You should not use this medication if you are allergic to gabapentin. If you have any of these other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take gabapentin.
* kidney disease;
* liver disease; or
* heart disease.
Hydrochlorothiazide
(Aquazide H, HydroDIURIL, Microzide)
Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic (water pill) that helps prevent your body from absorbing too much salt, which can cause fluid retention. Hydrochlorothiazide treats fluid retention (edema) in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disorders, or edema caused by taking steroids or estrogen. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Hydrochlorothiazide can interact with many other medicines including vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and prescribed drugs. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to hydrochlorothiazide, or if you are unable to urinate. Avoid becoming overheated or dehydrated during exercise and in hot weather.Before using hydrochlorothiazide, tell your doctor if you have:
* kidney disease;
* liver disease;
* asthma or allergies;
* gout;
* diabetes; or
* an allergy to sulfa drugs.
Lexapro
(escitalopram)
Lexapro is an antidepressant. Lexapro is used to treat anxiety in adults and major depressive disorder in adults and adolescents who are at least 12 years old. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression or anxiety. You may have thoughts about suicide when you first start taking an antidepressant. Do not use Lexapro if you are using an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam). Serious and sometimes fatal reactions can occur when these medicines are taken with Lexapro.
Lipitor
(atorvastatin)
Lipitor is a cholesterol-lowering medication that blocks the production of cholesterol (a type of fat) in the body. Lipitor is used to treat high cholesterol. Lipitor is also used to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack, or other heart complications in people with coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes. Lipitor can cause a condition that results in the breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. This condition can lead to kidney failure.This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not take Lipitor if you are pregnant or breast-feeding, or if you have liver disease. Avoid eating foods that are high in fat or cholesterol. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking Lipitor. Alcohol can raise triglyceride levels, and may also damage your liver while you are taking Lipitor.
Lisinopril
(Prinivil, Zestril)
Lisinopril is in a group of drugs called ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme). Lisinopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. Lisinopril could cause birth defects in the baby if you take the medication during pregnancy. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of lisinopril.
Lorazepam
(Ativan)
Lorazepam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. Lorazepam is used to treat anxiety or anxiety associated with symptoms of depression. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. This results in a reduction in nervous tension. This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not drink alcohol while taking lorazepam. This medication can increase the effects of alcohol.Lorazepam may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for.
Lyrica
(pregabalin )
Lyrica is an anti-epileptic drug, also called an anticonvulsant. Lyrica is used to control seizures and to treat fibromyalgia. It is also used to treat pain caused by nerve damage in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy) or herpes zoster (post-herpetic neuralgia). It works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Lyrica also affects chemicals in the brain that send pain signals across the nervous system. Call your doctor at once if you have any new or worsening symptoms such as: mood or behavior changes, depression, anxiety, or if you feel agitated, hostile, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself.
Metformin
(Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet)
Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin is for people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Metformin is sometimes used in combination with insulin or other medications, but it is not for treating type 1 diabetes. Some people have developed a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis while taking metformin. Do not use metformin if you have kidney disease, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin). Get emergency medical help if you have any of these symptoms of lactic acidosis: weakness, increasing sleepiness, slow heart rate, cold feeling, muscle pain, shortness of breath, stomach pain, feeling light-headed, and fainting.
Methadone
(Diskets, Dolophine, Methadose)
Methadone is a narcotic pain reliever, similar to morphine. It also reduces withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin or other narcotic drugs without causing the "high" associated with the drug addiction. Methadone is used as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification and maintenance programs. Like other narcotic medicines, methadone can slow your breathing, even long after the pain-relieving effects of the medication wear off. Death may occur if breathing becomes too weak. Do not use this medication if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a narcotic medicine (examples include codeine, morphine, Oxycontin, Darvocet, Percocet, Vicodin, Lortab, and many others). You should also not take methadone if you are having an asthma attack or if you have a bowel obstruction called paralytic ileus. Before taking methadone, talk to your doctor if you have:
* a personal or family history of "Long QT syndrome";
* asthma, COPD, sleep apnea, or other breathing disorders;
* liver or kidney disease;
* underactive thyroid;
* curvature of the spine;
* a history of head injury or brain tumor;
* epilepsy or other seizure disorder;
* low blood pressure;
* gallbladder disease;
* Addison's disease or other adrenal gland disorders;
* enlarged prostate, urination problems;
* mental illness; or
* a history of drug or alcohol addiction.
Methocarbamol
(Robaxin)
Methocarbamol is a skeletal muscle relaxant. Methocarbamol is used for relieving muscle pain and discomfort caused by sprains and strains. Some medical conditions may interact with Methocarbamol. Do NOT use Methocarbamol if:
* you are allergic to any ingredient in Methocarbamol
* you are also taking sodium oxybate (GHB)
* you have kidney disease
Metoprolol
(Lopressor, Toprol-XL)
Metoprolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Metoprolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack. Metoprolol can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol, which could increase drowsiness and dizziness while you are taking metoprolol. You should not use this medication if you are allergic to metoprolol, or if you have a serious heart problem such as heart block, sick sinus syndrome, or slowheart rate.
Morphine
(Avinza, Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, Oramorph SR, Roxanol)
Morphine is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by dulling the pain perception center in the brain. Morphine may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Do not drink alcohol while you are using morphine. Dangerous side effects or death can occur when alcohol is combined with morphine. Do not use morphine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a narcotic medicine (examples include codeine, methadone, Oxycontin, Darvocet, Percocet, Vicodin, Lortab, and many others). You should also not take morphine if you are having an asthma attack or if you have a bowel obstruction called paralytic ileus.
Neurontin
(Gabarone,Gabapentin )
Neurontin is an anti-epileptic medication, also called an anticonvulsant. Neurontin is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat seizures caused by epilepsy in adults and children who are at least 12 years old. It affects chemicals and nerves in the body that are involved in the cause of seizures and some types of pain. It can cause mood or behavior changes, depression, anxiety, or if you feel agitated, hostile, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself. You should not use Neurontin if you are allergic to gabapentin. If you have any of these other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take Neurontin.
* kidney disease;
* liver disease; or
* heart disease.
Naproxen
(Aleve, Anaprox, Comfort Pac with Naproxen, EC-Naprosyn, Leader Naproxen Sodium, Midol Extended Relief, Naprelan, Naprosyn)
Naproxen is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Naproxen is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, gout, or menstrual cramps. Naproxen can increase your risk of life-threatening heart or circulation problems, including heart attack or stroke. Naproxen can also increase your risk of serious effects on the stomach or intestines, including bleeding or perforation (forming of a hole). These conditions can be fatal and gastrointestinal effects can occur without warning at any time while you are taking naproxen. Older adults may have an even greater risk of these serious gastrointestinal side effects. If you take certain products together you may accidentally take too much of this type of medication. Read the label of any other medicine you are using to see if it contains aspirin, ibuprofen, or ketoprofen. Do not drink alcohol while taking naproxen. Alcohol can increase the risk of stomach bleeding caused by naproxen. Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight. Naproxen can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight, and a sunburn may result.
Norvasc
(amlodipine)
Norvasc is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. It dilates blood vessels and slows the heart to reduce blood pressure and the pain of angina. Norvasc is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) or angina (chest pain caused by lack of oxygen in the heart muscle due to clogged arteries). Avoid drinking alcohol while taking Norvasc. Alcohol can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of Norvasc. You should not take Norvasc if you are allergic to amlodipine. If you have certain conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely use this medication. Before taking Norvasc, tell your doctor if you have:
* congestive heart failure; or
* liver disease.
Oxycodone
(ETH-Oxydose, OxyContin, Oxyfast, Oxyir, Percolone, Roxicodone, Roxicodone Intensol)
Oxycodone is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. Oxycodone is used to treat moderate to severe pain. The extended-release form of this medication is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. It is not for treating pain just after a surgery unless you were already taking oxycodone before the surgery. Oxycodone may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for.Dangerous side effects or death can occur when alcohol is combined with a narcotic pain medicine. Check your food and medicine labels to be sure these products do not contain alcohol. Never take more than your prescribed dose of oxycodone.Oxycodone can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Before using oxycodone, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:
* asthma, COPD, sleep apnea, or other breathing disorders;
* liver or kidney disease;
* underactive thyroid;
* curvature of the spine;
* a history of head injury or brain tumor;
* epilepsy or other seizure disorder;
* low blood pressure;
* gallbladder disease;
* Addison's disease or other adrenal gland disorders;
* enlarged prostate, urination problems;
* mental illness; or
* a history of drug or alcohol addiction.
Oxycodone
(ETH-Oxydose, OxyContin, Oxyfast, OxyIR, Percolone, Roxicodone, Roxicodone Intensol)
OxyContin is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. OxyContin tablets are used to treat moderate to severe pain. The extended-release form of this medication is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. Oxycodone is not for treating pain just after a surgery unless you were already taking oxycodone before the surgery. OxyContin may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for.Do not drink alcohol while you are taking OxyContin. Dangerous side effects or death can occur when alcohol is combined with a narcotic pain medicine. Check your food and medicine labels to be sure these products do not contain alcohol. Do not use OxyContin if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a narcotic medicine (examples include methadone, morphine, Oxycontin, Darvocet, Percocet, Vicodin, Lortab, and many others), or to a narcotic cough medicine that contains codeine, hydrocodone, or dihydrocodeine. You should also not take OxyContin if you are having an asthma attack or if you have a bowel obstruction called paralytic ileus. OxyContin may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. This medicine should never be shared with another person, especially someone who has a history of drug abuse or addiction.
Percocet
(acetaminophen,oxycodone Endocet, Magnacet, Narvox, Roxicet, Tylox)
Oxycodone is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. Acetaminophen is a less potent pain reliever that increases the effects of oxycodone. Percocet is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Percocet can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Do not use Percocet if you are allergic to acetaminophen (Tylenol) or oxycodone. Oxycodone may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Percocet should never be given to another person, especially someone who has a history of drug abuse or addiction.
Phentermine
(Adipex-P, Ionamin, Obenix, Oby-Cap, Teramine, Zantryl)
Phentermine is a stimulant that is similar to an amphetamine. It is an appetite suppressant that affects the central nervous system. Phentermine is used togther with diet, exercise and behavioral modification to treat obesity (excessively overweight) in people with risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes. Taking phentermine together with other diet medications such as fenfluramine (Phen-Fen) or dexfenfluramine (Redux) can cause a rare fatal lung disorder called pulmonary hypertension. Do not take phentermine with any other diet medications without your doctor's advice. Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you take phentermine before the MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body. Taking phentermine together with other diet medications such as fenfluramine (Phen-Fen) or dexfenfluramine (Redux) can cause a rare fatal lung disorder called pulmonary hypertension. Do not take phentermine with any other diet medications without your doctor's advice.

Do not take this medication if you are allergic to phentermine or other stimulants, or if you have:

* heart disease or high blood pressure;
* arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries);
* an overactive thyroid;
* glaucoma;
* if you are in an agitated state; or
* if you have a history of drug or alcohol abuse.
Seroquel
(quetiapine)
Seroquel is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. Seroquel is used to treat schizophrenia in adults and children who are at least 13 years old. It is used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depression) in adults and children who are at least 10 years old. Seroquel is also used together with antidepressant medications to treat major depressive disorder in adults. Seroquel may cause heart failure, sudden death, or pneumonia in older adults with dementia-related conditions. Stop using Seroquel and call your doctor at once if you have the following symptoms: fever, stiff muscles, confusion, sweating, fast or uneven heartbeats, uncontrolled muscle movements, symptoms that come on suddenly such as numbness or weakness, severe headache, and problems with vision, speech, or balance. Seroquel is not for use in psychotic conditions that are related to dementia. Seroquel may cause heart failure, sudden death, or pneumonia in older adults with dementia-related conditions.

If you have any of these other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take Seroquel:
* liver or kidney disease;
* heart disease, high blood pressure, heart rhythm problems;
* a history of heart attack or stroke;
* a history of low white blood cell (WBC) counts;
* a thyroid disorder;
* seizures or epilepsy;
* high cholesterol or triglycerides;
* a personal or family history of diabetes; or
* trouble swallowing.
Skelaxin
(metaxalone)<
Skelaxin is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) in the brain. Skelaxin is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat discomfort associated with acute skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury. Skelaxin can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of Skelaxin. You should not use Skelaxin if you are allergic to metaxalone, or if you have:
* anemia (a lack of red blood cells);
* severe kidney disease; or
* severe liver disease.
Soma
)(carisoprodol,Vanadom)
Soma is a muscle relaxer that works by blocking pain sensations between the nerves and the brain. Soma is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat injuries and other painful musculoskeletal conditions. This medication may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Soma can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Do not use Soma if you are allergic to carisoprodol or meprobamate (Equanil, Miltown), or if you have porphyria.

Before using Soma, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:
* epilepsy or other seizure disorder;
* liver disease; or
* kidney disease.
Tramadol
(Ultram, Ultram ER)
Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever. Tramadol is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Tramadol extended-release is used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain when treatment is needed around the clock. Tramadol can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. You should not take tramadol if you have ever been addicted to drugs or alcohol, if you are currently intoxicated (drunk), or if you have recently used any of the following drugs:
* alcohol;
* narcotic pain medicine;
* sedatives or tranquilizers (such as Valium);
* medicine for depression or anxiety;
* medicine for mental illness (such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia); or
* street drugs.

Seizures have occurred in some people taking tramadol. Your risk of a seizure may be higher if you have any of these conditions:
* a history of drug or alcohol addiction;
* a history of epilepsy or other seizure disorder;
* a history of head injury;
* a metabolic disorder; or
* if you are also taking an antidepressant, muscle relaxer, or medicine for nausea and vomiting.
Trazodone
(Desyrel)
Trazodone is a antidepressant medication. It is thought to increase the activity of one of the brain chemicals (serotonin) which may become unbalanced and cause depression. Trazodone is used to treat depression. It may also be used for relief of anxiety disorders (eg, sleeplessness, tension) and chronic pain. Trazodone can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Call your doctor at once if you have any new or worsening symptoms such as: mood or behavior changes, anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, or if you feel impulsive, irritable, agitated, hostile, aggressive, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), more depressed, or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself.

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to trazodone. Before using trazodone, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:
* bipolar disorder (manic depression);
* schizophrenia, or other psychiatric illness;
* a history of drug abuse or suicidal thoughts; or
* if you have recently had a heart attack.
Valium
(diazepam)
Valium is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Valium is used in the management of anxiety disorders. It may also be used to treat agitation, shakiness, and hallucinations during alcohol withdrawal and to relieve certain types of muscle pain. You should not use Valium if you are allergic to diazepam, or if you have myasthenia gravis, severe liver disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, a severe breathing problem, or sleep apnea. This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not use Valium if you are pregnant. You should not use Valium if you are allergic to diazepam, or if you have:
* myasthenia gravis (a muscle weakness disorder);
* severe liver disease;
* narrow-angle glaucoma;
* a severe breathing problem; or
* sleep apnea (breathing stops during sleep).
Vicodin
(acetaminophen, hydrocodone,Anexsia, Dolorex Forte, Hycet, Liquicet, Lorcet, Lortab, Maxidone, Norco, Polygesic, Stagesic, Vicodin, Xodol, Zamicet, Zydone)
Vicodin is a tablet containing a combination of acetaminophen and hydrocodone. Hydrocodone is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. Acetaminophen is a less potent pain reliever that increases the effects of hydrocodone. Vicodin is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Do not take Vicodin if you drink more than three alcoholic beverages per day or if you have ever had alcoholic liver disease (cirrhosis). You may not be able to take medication that contains acetaminophen. Do not use Vicodin if you are allergic to acetaminophen (Tylenol) or hydrocodone. Hydrocodone may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for.

Before using Vicodin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:
* asthma, COPD, sleep apnea, or other breathing disorders;
* liver or kidney disease;
* a history of head injury or brain tumor;
* low blood pressure;
* a stomach or intestinal disorder;
* underactive thyroid;
* Addison's disease or other adrenal gland disorder;
* curvature of the spine;
* mental illness; or
* a history of drug or alcohol addiction.
Xanax
(alprazolam, Niravam, Xanax)
Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Xanax is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by depression. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Xanax or to other benzodiazepines, such as chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clorazepate (Tranxene), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), or oxazepam (Serax). This medication can cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not use Xanax if you are pregnant. Do not use this medication if you have:
* narrow-angle glaucoma;
* if you are also taking itraconazole (Sporanox) or ketoconazole (Nizoral); or
* if you are allergic to alprazolam or to other benzodiazepines, such as chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clorazepate (Tranxene), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), or oxazepam (Serax).
Zoloft
(sertraline)
Zoloft is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Zoloft affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression, panic, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Zoloft is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Do not take Zoloft together with pimozide (Orap), or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam), or tranylcypromine (Parnate). SSRI antidepressants may cause serious or life-threatening lung problems in newborn babies whose mothers take the medication during pregnancy. Do not use Zoloft if you are using pimozide (Orap), or an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam). Serious and sometimes fatal reactions can occur when these medicines are taken with Zoloft. You must wait at least 14 days after stopping an MAO inhibitor before you can take sertraline. After you stop taking Zoloft, you must wait at least 14 days before you start taking an MAOI.

Before taking Zoloft, tell your doctor if you have:
* liver or kidney disease;
* seizures or epilepsy;
* bipolar disorder (manic depression); or
* a history of drug abuse or suicidal thoughts.
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